1. Definition

Emotion is a Factor of Personal Status representing the internal state of an Entity such as  that results from its interaction with the Context, such as “Angry”, “Sad”, “Determined”.

Emotion can be expressed via several Modalities: Text, Speech, Face, and Gestures. (Other Modalities, such as body posture, may be handled in future MPAI Versions.)

Within a given Modality, Emotion can be analysed and interpreted via various Descriptors. For example, when expressed via Speech, the elements may be expressed through combinations of such features as prosody (pitch, rhythm, and volume variations); separable speech effects (such as degrees of voice tension, breathiness, etc.); and vocal gestures (laughs, sobs, etc.).

Emotion is represented by a standard set of labels and associated semantics by two tables:

  • Label Set Table containing descriptive labels relevant to the Factor in a three-level format:
    • The CATEGORIES column specifies the relevant categories using nouns (e.g., “AN-GER”).
    • The GENERAL ADJECTIVAL column gives adjectival labels for general or basic la-bels within a category (e.g., “angry”).
    • The SPECIFIC ADJECTIVAL column gives more specific (sub-categorised) labels in the relevant category (e.g., “furious”).
  • Label Semantics Table providing the semantics for each label in the GENERAL AD-JECTIVAL and SPECIFIC ADJECTIVAL columns of the Label Set Table. For example, for “angry” the semantic gloss is “emotion due to perception of physical or emotional damage or threat.”

Table 1 gives the standardised three-level Basic Emotion Set partly based on Paul Eckman [19].

Table 1 – Basic Emotion Label Set

ANGER angry furious
CALMNESS calm peaceful/serene
DISGUST disgusted repulsed
FEAR fearful/scared terrified
HAPPINESS happy joyful
HURT hurt
RETROSPECTION nostalgic homesick
SADNESS sad lonely

Table 2 provides the semantics for each label in the GENERAL ADJECTIVAL and SPECIFIC ADJECTIVAL columns above.

Table 2  – Basic Emotion Semantics Set

ID Emotion Meaning
1 amused positive emotion combined with interest (cognitive state)
2 angry emotion due to perception of physical or emotional damage or threat
3 anxious/uneasy low or medium degree of fear, often continuing rather than instant
4 ashamed emotion due to awareness of violating social or moral norms
5 bitter persistently angry due to disappointment or perception of hurt or injury
6 calm relatively lacking emotion
7 content medium or low degree of happiness, continuing rather than instant
8 delighted high degree of happiness, often combined with surprise
9 depressed/


high degree of sadness, continuing rather than instant, combined with lethargy (see AROUSAL)
10 disappointed sadness due to failure of desired outcome
11 disgusted emotion due to urge to avoid, often due to unpleasant perception or disapproval
12 embarrassed shame due to consciousness of violation of social conventions
13 fearful/scared emotion due to anticipation of physical or emotional pain or other undesired event or events
14 frustrated angry due to failure of desired outcome
15 furious high degree of angry
16 grief-stricken sadness due to loss of an important social contact
17 happy positive emotion, often continuing rather than instant
18 homesick sad due to absence from home
19 hurt emotion due to perception that others have caused social pain or embarrassment
20 insulted/offended emotion due to perception that one has been improperly treated socially
21 irritated low or medium degree of angry
22 jealous emotion due to perception that others are more fortunate or successful
23 joyful high degree of happiness, often due to a specific event
24 repulsed high degree of disgusted
25 lonely sad due to insufficient social contact
26 mortified high degree of embarrassment
27 nostalgic emotion associated with pleasant memories, usually of long before
28 peaceful/serene calm combined with low degree of happiness
29 proud emotion due to perception of positive social standing
30 resentful/disgruntled emotion due to perception that one has been improperly treated
31 resigned calm due to acceptance of failure of desired outcome, often combined with low degree of sadness
32 sad negative emotion, often continuing rather than instant, often associated with a specific event
33 terrified high degree of fear

These sets have been compiled in the interests of basic cooperation and coordination among AIM submitters and vendors complemented by a procedure whereby AIM submitters may propose extended or alternate sets for their purposes.

An Implementer wishing to extend or replace a Label Set Table for Emotion is requested to do the following:

  1. Create a new Label Set Table where:
    1. Proposed additions are clearly marked (in case of extension).
    2. b. All the elements of the Emotion and levels (up to 3) are listed (in case of replacement).
  2. Create a new Label Semantics Table where the semantics of elements of the Emotion is:
    1. Added to the semantics of the existing Emotion (in case of extension).
    2. Provided (in case of replacement).
      The submitted semantics should have a level of detail comparable to the semantics given in the current Label Semantics Table.
  3. Submit both tables to the MPAI Secretariat.

The appropriate MPAI Development Committee will examine the proposed extension or replac­ement. Only the adequacy of the proposed new tables in terms of clarity and completeness will be considered. In case the new tables are not clear or complete, a revision of the tables will be requested.

The accepted Emotion Set will be identified as proposed by the submitter and reviewed by the appropriate MPAI Committee and posted to the MPAI web site.

The versioning system is based on a name – MPAI for MPAI-generated versions or “organisation name” for the proposing organisation – with a suffix m.n where m indicates the version and n indicated the subversion.

2. Syntax


3. Semantics

  1. Timestamp type can either be:
    • Absolute time (A)
    • Relative time, i.e., time from the start of operation (R)
  2. Timestamp value.
  3. 6 values of Cognitive State

Table 1 – Modality table for the Emotion Factor

Cognitive State Version Fused value Text Speech Face Gesture

Table 2 – The variables composing Emotion

Variable name Code
Timestamp Timestamp type
Timestamp value
Emotion Emotion version
Fused Emotion value
Text Emotion value
Speech Emotion value
Face Emotion value
Gesture Emotion value